ROMANIA – Migration and demographic patterns in Central-Eastern Europe

This report is a part of deliverable “D.6.2. Report on migration and demographic patterns in the EU CEE countries and potential source countries” from the project FUME – Future Migration Scenarios for Europe (870649), financed with the Horizon 2020 programme. In particular, this country report focuses on critical analysis of migration data from Romania, and in particular - immigration data. The analysis consists of an overview of stock and flow data on migrants including such dimensions as age groups, gender, country of origin and length of residence. This report is a first step in analytical exercise which aims to determine migration potential from and to Romania and furthermore, to provide necessary data input for fine-tuning of FUME migration projection model.

Romania has been among the largest emigration countries in southeastern Europe for the last couple of decades. Socio-economic and political transformation brought many challenges and led to a number of waves of Romanian emigrants who settled mainly in Western and Southern Europe, but also in the United States and Canada. Recent migration patterns were largely determined by the process of European integration which brought new mobility and work opportunities. According to recent official statistics, the number of emigrants since 2011 has been higher than immigrants, and is relatively stable. On the other hand, immigration to Romania is still not significant, although it is on the increase in the last couple of years. Among new trends in immigrations is the arrival of Asian workers, mainly from China or Vietnam, which is a response to a lack of workforce in Romania.

This report presents the historical framework of migration transformation, diaspora dynamics and major national groups of immigrants and their demographic structure. It also provides critical analysis of the validity of the main statistical data sources, and draws some conclusions on migration patterns and trends in Romania.